Mekinian A, Dervin G, Lapidus N, Kahn JE, Terriou L, Liozon E, Grignano E, Piette JC, Rauzy OB, Grobost V, Godmer P, Gillard J, Rossignol J, Launay D, Aouba A, Cardon T, Bouillet L, Broner J, Vinit J, Ades L, Carrat F, Salvado C, Toussirot E, Versini M, Costedoat-Chalumeau N, Fraison JB, Guilpain P, Fenaux P, Fain O; GFM, SNFMI, CRI and MINHEMON.
Autoimmun Rev. 2017 Sep;16(9):903-910. doi: 10.1016/j.autrev.2017.07.003. Epub 2017 Jul 10.
BACKGROUND: Systemic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (SIADs) associated with myelodysplastic syndromes are often difficult to treat. Corticosteroids are efficient but only usually at high doses. The use of biologics needs to be specified.
METHODS: In a French multicenter retrospective study, we analyzed the efficacy and safety of biologics (tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α] antagonists, tocilizumab, rituximab and anakinra) for SIADs associated with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs). Clinical, biological and overall treatment responses were evaluated. When several lines of treatment were used, data were analyzed before and at the end of each treatment line and were pooled to compare overall response among steroids, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and biologics.
RESULTS: We included 29 patients (median age 67years [interquartile range 62-76], 83% males) with MDS-related SIADs treated with at least one biologic. The MDSs were predominantly refractory anemia with excess blasts 1 (38%) and refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (21%). The SIADs were mainly arthritis (n=6; 20%), relapsing polychondritis (n=8; 30%) and vasculitis (n=10; 34%). During a 3-year median follow-up (IQR 1.3-4.5), a total of 114 lines of treatments were used for all patients: steroids alone (22%), DMARDs (23%), TNF-α antagonists (14%), anakinra (10%), rituximab (10%), tocilizumab (7%) and azacytidine (9%). Considering all 114 lines, overall response (complete and partial) was shown in 54% cases. Overall response was more frequent with steroids (78%) and rituximab (66%) than DMARDs (45%) and other biologics (33%) (p<0.05). Rituximab had better response in vasculitis and TNF-α antagonists in arthritis. During follow-up, 20 patients (71%) presented at least one severe infection.
CONCLUSION: This nationwide study demonstrates the efficacy of steroids for SIAD-associated MDSs but a high frequency of steroid dependence. The response to biologics seems low, but rituximab and azacytidine seem promising.
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