Ades L, Prebet T, Stamatoullas A, Recher C, Guieze R, Raffoux E, Bouabdallah K, Hunault M, Wattel E, Stalnikiewicz L, Toma A, Dombret H, Vey N, Sebert M, Gardin C, Chaffaut C, Chevret S, Fenaux P.
Lenalidomide combined with intensive chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia and higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome with 5q deletion. Results of a phase II study by the Groupe Francophone Des Myélodysplasies.
Haematologica. 2017 Apr;102(4):728-735. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2016.151894. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
Patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia or higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes with 5q deletion (generally within a complex karyotype) respond poorly to intensive chemotherapy and have very poor survival. In this population, we evaluated escalating doses of lenalidomide combined with intensive chemotherapy in a phase II study. Treatment consisted of daunorubicin (45 mg/m2/day, days 1-3 in cohort 1, escalated to 60 mg/m2/day, days 1-3 in cohorts 2 and 3) combined with cytosine arabinoside (200 mg/m2/day, days 1-7) and lenalidomide (10 mg/day, days 1-21 in cohorts 1 and 2, escalated to 25 mg/day, days 1-21 in cohort 3). Eighty-two patients with 5q deletion were enrolled, including 62 with acute myeloblastic leukemia, 62/79 (78%) of whom had a complex karyotype (median 7 cytogenetic abnormalities, all but 2 of them monosomal) and three had unknown karyotypes. Thirty-eight patients (46%) achieved complete remission and the overall response rate was 58.5%. Among the 62 patients with a complex karyotype, 27 achieved complete remission (44%) and 21 had cytogenetic responses. A lower response rate was observed in patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia but other pretreatment factors, including cytogenetic complexity and treatment cohort, did not significantly influence response. Fifteen patients underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation, including 11 patients in first remission. The 1-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 64.6% and the median overall survival was 8.2 months. By comparison with conventional intensive chemotherapy, the treatment protocol we used appeared to produce higher hematologic and cytogenetic complete remission rates in patients with very poor cytogenetics, but response duration was short in this very poor risk population, highlighting the need for better post-induction strategies.